England and Wales are now minority Christian countries, according to the 2021 census, which also shows that Leicester and Birmingham have become the first UK cities to have “minority majorities”.
The census also reveals a 5.5 million drop in the number of Christians and a 44% rise in the number of people following Islam. It is the first time in a census of England and Wales that less than half of the population have described themselves as “Christian”.
Meanwhile, 37.2% of people – 22.2 million – declared they had “no religion”, the second most common response after Christian.It means that over the past 20 years the proportion of people reporting no religion has soared from 14.8%.
The archbishop of York, Stephen Cottrell, said the census result “throws down a challenge to us not only to trust that God will build his kingdom on Earth but also to play our part in making Christ known”.
“We have left behind the era when many people almost automatically identified as Christian but other surveys consistently show how the same people still seek spiritual truth and wisdom and a set of values to live by,” he said.
The chief executive of Humanists UK, Andrew Copson, said: “One of the most striking things about these census results is how at odds the population is from the state itself. No state in Europe has such a religious set-up as we do in terms of law and public policy, while at the same time having such a non-religious population.”
The slump in religion and emergence of minority ethnic populations as a combined majority in whole conurbations in England and Wales is revealed in data about the ethnicity, religion and language of close to 60 million people gathered in a snapshot census on 21 March 2021.
Across the two countries, 81.7% of the population is now white, including non-British, down from 86% in 2011, 9.3% is Asian British, up from 7.5%, 2.5% is Black, Black British, Black Welsh, Caribbean-African and African, up from 1.8%, and 1.6% are other ethnicities.
Ushering in a new age of city-wide “super diversity”, the Office for National Statistics data showed 59.1% of the people of Leicester are now from ethnic minority groups, a major change since 1991, when black and minority ethnic people made up just over a quarter of the city’s residents. Leicester’s Asian population first became well established after 20,000 people settled in the east Midlands manufacturing city after expulsion from Uganda in 1972.
Minority ethnic people also make up more than half the population in Luton (54.8%) and Birmingham (51.4%), the UK’s second largest city where 20 years ago seven out of 10 people were white. Since the second world war, Birmingham’s population has grown with immigration from the Caribbean and south Asia, as well as Gujaratis who had been in east Africa.
The figures will present a fresh impetus to policymakers to tackle embedded racial inequalities, which mean black and minority ethnic people are 2.5 times more likely to be in relative poverty and are falling faster and further below the poverty line in the cost of living crisis, according to the Runnymede Trust, a race equality thinktank.
While there have been significant improvements in the educational attainment of almost all ethnic minority groups in recent years, median weekly earnings among black Caribbean male employees were 13% below white British men in 2019, with Pakistani and Bangladeshi pay 22% and 42% lower, according to recent research by the Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Meanwhile, the census revealed a substantial fall in religious adherence.
Islam, by contrast, is increasingly widespread, from 4.8% or 2.7 million people in 2011 to 6.5% and 3.9 million people in 2021.
Humanists and secularists seized on the figures as proof of the need for reform of religion’s role in a society which has bishops of the established Church of England voting on laws and compulsory Christian worship in all schools that are not of a designated religious character.
“The current status quo, in which the Church of England is deeply embedded in the UK state, is unfair and undemocratic – and looking increasingly absurd and unsustainable,” said Stephen Evans, the chief executive of the National Secular Society.
The census did not ask people whether they were Church of England, Catholic or any other denomination, but the findings are likely to indicate shrinking congregations for the established Anglican churches of England and Wales. In 2018, the British Social Attitudes Survey found only 12% of British people were Anglicans, down from 40% in 1983.
Dr Adam Rutherford, president of Humanists UK, said people should not think a decline in religion equated to an “absence in values”.
“We might be living in a more values-driven society than ever before,” he said. “Surveys show, for example, that around three in 10 British adults have humanist beliefs and values, and it’s a trend we’ve seen growing in recent years.”
Humanists say they trust science over the supernatural, base their ethics around reason, empathy and concern for humans and other sentient animals and that in the absence of an afterlife, “human beings can act to give their own lives meaning by seeking happiness in this life and helping others to do the same”.