Hundreds of warplanes and dozens of ships took part in the largest Russian operation since it seized Crimea in 2014. According to the Russian Defence Ministry the exercise involved over 10,000 troops and 1,200 military vehicles.
Sporadic fighting has continued in eastern Ukraine between Ukrainian troops and Russia backed separatists.
Moscow has threatened to use force if Ukraine attempts to retake its territory using force.
Separately Russia is ordering its troops to return to their main bases according to the RIA news agency.
It claimed the country had completed a “snap inspection” of its southern and western forces.
It is unclear whether this means all Russian troops along the Ukrainian border will be removed.
Following the announcement the Russian rouble rose sharply in value.
Russian defence minister Sergei Shoigu commented: “I believe the objectives of the snap inspection have been fully achieved.
“The troops have demonstrated their ability to provide a credible defence for the country.
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As part of a mock naval assault, 2,000 Russian paratroopers were landed with 60 vehicles.
The landing received cover from Russian warplanes in the air.
Earlier this week Dmytro Kuleba, the Ukrainian foreign minister, urged western powers to increase sanctions on Moscow.
He claimed Russia could soon have 120,000 soldiers along its border with Ukraine and in Crimea.
Last week Russia announced parts of the Black Sea around Crimea will be closed to foreign military vessels until November.
On Wednesday Ukraine passed a law allowing its government to summon military reservists without announcing a general mobilization.
In a statement Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy claimed this will “significantly increase their combat effectiveness during military aggression”.
At least 14,000 people have died since pro-Russian separatists’ uprisings broke out in easter Ukraine during 2014.
Ukraine maintains the uprisings were assisted and partly orchestrated by regular Russian forces.
The separatists have created two self-styled independent states, the Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics, though both lack any international recognition.