More than a year into the, strategizing for strict lockdowns is slowly giving way to planning an appointment for your . In the process, a new question is emerging: Should governments and the private sector embrace the idea of a digital vaccine passport for travel and even for everyday life? Though proving you’re vaccinated to travel abroad isn’t a new concept — some countries have required yellow fever vaccines for years — doing so for COVID-19 would be on a far grander scale than ever before. And a passport for domestic use, such as for going to a concert, is new territory.
Advocates say such passports would hasten the return of a “normal” world with travel, sporting and cultural events and dancing in packed nightclubs. Skeptics, however, predict they could result in discrimination and fraud, encourage risky behavior in the face of newvariants, and be a privacy minefield. And the logistical challenges in implementing them across multiple states and countries are immense.
Some places, though, are pushing ahead either with real vaccine passport plans or allowing vaccinated visitors to skip quarantine requirements for entry. The private sector, most notably cruise lines and airlines, is also eagerly climbing aboard. As the debate continues, here’s what we know, including which countries may be the first to use a passport as proof you got a.
What is a COVID-19 vaccine passport and what would it do?
There’s no agreed-upon definition for a COVID vaccine passport quite yet, but generally it would be a form of documentation (likely digital) that would allow you to prove to border officials or another gatekeeper that you’ve been vaccinated against COVID-19.
Regaining the ability to travel freely is getting the most attention in the debate, but that’s not the only proposed use. More controversially, they also could let you resume everyday activities that are restricted because of the pandemic. That could include eating inside a full-capacity restaurant, enjoying a cocktail in a bar, seeing a movie or theater performance, going to, watching a ballgame (the Miami Heat is reserving seating for vaccinated fans) and other events that would put you in close proximity with a lot of other people. Schools could require it (most already require vaccination against other diseases), and employers may mandate it for .
How would it work?
Despite its name, the vaccine passport likely wouldn’t be like the little booklet passport you present to immigration officials when you cross an international border. Rather, the most probable concept is for a digital passport that’s part of a mobile app. The app could also allow you to check entry requirements for a country (possibly after uploading your itinerary) and hold the status of your, and maybe other health information. For people without smartphones, some proponents are pushing for an alternative paper version.
How the app would show your vaccination status is unclear, as multiple apps are in development (see next section). A scannable barcode is a likely option.
How the app would verify your vaccination is another outstanding question. Perhaps you could take a photo of a paper vaccination certificate, but that method opens the door to possible forgery. A better option would be for vaccinated people to receive a digital record, but that would require vaccination sites to keep standardized records and make the data available to passport developers.
Is there just one version of a vaccination passport in development?
Currently a few businesses and organizations are working to create passports. Here’s a partial list.
One is the International Air Transport Association, a trade group based in Montreal that represents 290 airlines worldwide. The IATA is developing an app called Travel Pass that would let users upload documentation that proves vaccination status. It also would let passengers check health entry requirements for countries they plan to visit and find COVID testing centers either before they leave on a trip or when why arrive. Eventually, the Travel Pass also could incorporate biometric information such as a thumbprint or facial recognition to prove a person’s identity.
The IATA says 23 airlines, including, Singapore Airlines, Virgin Atlantic and the parent company of , are currently testing Travel Pass. The app should be released later in March, and the organization says airlines would have the option of integrating the data into their own apps.
IBM is developing a Digital Health Pass that would “enable organizations to verify health credentials for employees, customers and visitors entering their site based on criteria specified by the organization.”
, the registered traveler program that allows you to speed through security at US airports, is pushing the feature in its app, as well. It recently partnered with The Commons Project Foundation to collect and manage vaccination records. The Commons Project Foundation working with the World Economic Forum also has its own app, CommonPass, which has signed on United Airlines, Cathay Pacific and JetBlue as initial partners. CommonPass also could link with the iOS and Android health apps.
Other possible apps include the AOKpass, Passport for COVID and Corona Pass.
Would it be confusing to have several apps?
A lack of standardization would be a burden for everyone. Some apps, for example, could request more information than others or the could work in different ways. Another potential problem could be countries and airlines accepting only some apps, forcing travelers to upload their vaccination records multiple times. We’ll have to see how that plays out, but it could be one avenue for the government to step in (more on that later).
Which vaccines would qualify?
That’s unclear at this moment, and it’s something that could get messy if some countries decide to exclude a certain vaccine if they haven’t approved it. The European Union has already said as such, which I’ll discuss later.
Is a vaccination passport being used now?
Not yet, at least on a cross-border basis. But Israel, which is leading the world in vaccination rates, has launched a “green passport” that gives holders access to places like gyms, theaters, hotels, concerts and synagogues. New York state also has announced an app called Excelsior Pass, Currently in trials, it would let users gain access to indoor entertainment venues and businesses.
Which countries are considering using vaccine passports?
It’s a broad coalition, with much of the push now coming from Europe. Denmark and Sweden have both said they will develop vaccine passports for travel, and Estonia is working with the World Health Organization on a solution. Popular tourist destinations like Greece, Spain and Cyprus are eager, as well.
On March 1, EU Commission President Ursula von der Leyen tweeted that the EU would present a legislative proposal this month for a Digital Green Pass that would include proof that a person has been vaccinated. Two weeks later on March 17, the European Commission released a proposal (PDF) for resuming free travel within the bloc for vaccinated EU citizens and residents. There will likely be some restrictions — currently, the EU hasn’t approved Russia’s Sputnik V and China’s Sinopharm vaccines for use, and vaccinated people from other countries would still be barred from entry. The Green Pass could be ready by June.
Outside of the EU, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson has said his government is reviewing their use. China and Japan are also advocating for vaccine passports, as are other tourism-dependent countries like Thailand and Aruba.
Have any countries already changed entry requirements for vaccinated travelers?
Yes. Iceland was one of the first countries to allow vaccinated visitors to skip testing and quarantine requirements. It’s been joined by a handful of other countries including Belize, Croatia, Ecuador, Estonia, Guatemala, Montenegro and Seychelles.
What has the US government said?
On Jan. 21 as part of an executive order aimed at curbing the pandemic, President Joe Biden directed his cabinet to assess the feasibility of linking COVID-19 vaccination to the current International Certificates of Vaccination or Prophylaxis used by the WHO (more on that later).
But in a briefing on March 9, White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki said the private sector would likely drive any use of passports in the country. “There are lots of ideas that will come from the private sector and nonprofits,” she said. “We welcome those. But our focus from the federal government is on getting more people vaccinated, and that’s where we feel we can use our resources best.” Then on April 6 Psaki said, “There will be no federal vaccinations database and no federal mandate requiring everyone to obtain a single vaccination credential.”
Andy Slavitt, the acting administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services echoed those comments in a March 29 briefing. “We view this as something that the private sector is doing and will do,” he said. “What’s important to us — and we’re leading an interagency process right now to go through these details — are that some important criteria be met with these credentials.” That criteria includes equitable access to the passports (such as for people who don’t own smartphones) and securing the privacy of user information.
Though the US alreadyto enter the country, it does not require a COVID vaccination. Visitors to the US and returning US residents are not required to be vaccinated against anything, though immigrants must be inoculated for 14 other diseases.
Where is the pushback coming from?
In the US, vaccine passports have already emerged as a partisan issue with Republican elected officials in particular decrying any use in domestic settings as a violation of personal freedoms. One of the loudest critics has been Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis, who issued an executive order April 2 banning banning businesses and government agencies in the state from requiring vaccination passports. But that order may run afoul of the cruise industry, a powerful force in the Florida tourism sector (see below section about the private sector).
And around the world, the idea has yet to gain traction in developing countries with less access to the vaccine or with economies not dependent on tourism.
What does the WHO say?
Though the WHO is exploring how a vaccine passport might work, in a statement on Feb. 5 it said, “At the present time, it is WHO’s position that national authorities and conveyance operators should not introduce requirements of proof of COVID-19 vaccination for international travel as a condition for departure or entry, given that there are still critical unknowns regarding the efficacy of vaccination in reducing transmission.” The WHO gives more reasons for its stance, which are included below.
Is the private sector interested?
Very much so. Airlines, led by the IATA, cruise lines and others in the travel and hospitality industry are big supporters. Qantas, for example, will require visitors to Australia to have a vaccine to fly. Given the country’sand success in , it’s not surprising.
There is a big incentive for airlines to endorse the idea of a vaccine passport. Keep in mind that airlines are responsible for ensuring passengers have the correct documentation to fly to any country before they board a flight. In a sense, that makes an airline check-in desk the equivalent of a border crossing. And if an airline happens to fly someone to a country they can’t enter because they’re not vaccinated, the carrier is responsible for flying them back home at its own expense.
Cruise lines are motivated to support the use of passports given that cruise ships like the Diamond Princess were major coronavirus hotspots when the pandemic began, and less recently for other diseases like norovirus. Royal Caribbean announced on March 1 that it will resume sailing from Israel and that all passengers 16 years and older will have to be vaccinated. It also has announced upcoming cruises from Cyprus and the Bahamas will be open only to vaccinated crew and passengers. It’s not a stretch to assume that such a mandate will be enforced across all of the company’s ships.
That’s the case with Norwegian Cruise Lines, which announced April 6 that all passengers booked on cruises through Oct. 31 will need to be vaccinated. Other cruise lines have followed with varying requirements of their own, including Cunard, Celebrity and Princess. Keep in mind, though, that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are still setting requirements for cruise lines to begin sailing from the US. At present, a vaccination requirement for passengers is not among them.
What are the arguments favoring a vaccine passport?
Advocates say there are a few reasons. They could:
- Bring about a long-awaited return to “normal” life.
- Encourage people to get the shot, which would reduce COVID-19 transmission.
- Better protect front-line workers in the medical, travel, hospitality and service industries, and everyone else around you.
- Allow countries to fully reopen their economies.
The problem, though, is that these reasons aren’t perfectly in line. So, which will be the priority? That’s something we’ll have to decide.
What are the arguments against a vaccine passport?
There are a few critical ones here, as well.
- They could result in inequality and discrimination, not just for people in developing countries where the vaccine is less available, but also for young and healthy people in richer countries who may not get their shots for months.
- It would also be unfair for communities who are less trustful of vaccines and those who decline the vaccine for religious or cultural reasons.
- Privacy advocates are concerned about the security of apps that will hold private and critical information about a user’s health. It would be just another app loaded with personal data that could be vulnerable to hacking or misuse. Many app developers counter that they’re securing the apps through , which means the data wouldn’t be stored in one place.
- As the vaccine doesn’t bring total immunity, it could bring a false sense of security and lead to risky behavior and the rise of new COVID-19 variants.
- If used for everyday activities, it may lead to coercion of vaccines.
Some countries require vaccines for other diseases like yellow fever. How is this different?
A vaccination as a requirement to enter a country is not a new concept. The affected diseases include not just yellow fever, but also meningitis and polio. Travelers can record their shots and prove their status with the WHO’s International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (also called a Carte Jaune or Yellow Card), which is a vaccination passport.
COVID-19 is different because it’s happening on a vastly wider scale than something like yellow fever. Only a handful of countries, all in equatorial Africa, require a yellow fever vaccination for all travelers. And a set of other countries, like China, Australia, South Africa and Colombia only require it if you’re arriving from a country with a yellow fever risk (the WHO has a comprehensive list of vaccination requirements by country).
Why not use a paper passport?
Advocates say there are a few reasons to go digital. Paper passports would be more subject to forgery, and they’d be more difficult to replace if lost, stolen or damaged. And it’s likely that border officials would be able to check digital passports quicker than they would paper certificates. That would help at busy international airports where multiple flights with hundreds of people each can arrive within minutes of each other.
When could I get one?
There’s no set timetable yet for the introduction or adoption of any kind of vaccine passport. But on a travel basis once there’s some consensus on adoption and how they could work, we’ll likely see some quick traction.
Keep in mind, though, that many countries are still closed to visitors. Removing those barriers will be a completely separate issue.
Once I have one, can I stop wearing a mask and social distancing?
No. Social distancing andare still absolutely essential for fighting the spread of the virus and protecting the health of you and others. And they’ll remain that way for many months.
The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.