Working Principle Of Solar Panel Street Light

 Solar street lights are basically the raised light sources motorized by solar panels and are usually fixed with the lighting frame or included in the pole itself. There is a rechargeable battery in the solar panels, which powers an LED lamp at the time of night.

The Streetlight contains sensors which are present inside the Luminaries having a function to check the sunshine available all around the installed region. Usually, Streetlights gets switch OFF around 6.00 am. In case if there is no sunshine for two days, then the battery will hold the load for two days. The designing of the system is for outdoor application, for example: in non-electrical rural areas. This system is best for the villages and campus street lighting. It is well equipped with the backup of proper battery storage which can easily handle the daily light for 10 -11 hours. There is a switch for ON/OFF which is automatic in the system which takes care of ON/OFF. Thus, solar panel Street light is very useful and efficient

Ø These are following things which the solar street light system has: –

  • Microcontroller which has Charge Controller
  • Crystalline Solar PV Module Mono
  • LED Lamp consists of fixtures
  • With battery box the SMF battery or Tubular plate
  • 6 meters mild steel lamp post
  • Accessory and Wire
  • Mounting hardware.

Ø Working Principle: 

  1. The conversion of sunlight through Photovoltaic solar cells into electrical energy.
  2. Semiconductor material which is present in the device does the conversion.
  3. The whole process of this conversion is known as the “Photovoltaic effect.”
  4. The other name given to it is “photovoltaic cells.” Or solar cells.
  5. Photovoltaic solar cells help to create a principle effect of solar panels at the day time.
  6. Batteries are present where the electrical energy is stored.
  7. The illumination gets reduced to 101ux at night time.
  8. At that time the Solar cells board let the circuit voltage of 4.5V flow.
  9. In order to detect the voltage value movement, the charge and discharge controller is taken into consideration.
  10. So as to safeguard the battery, the discharge and Charge controllers are used.

Ø Components of Solar Street Lights:

Solar Panel

  • It plays an essential role in solar street lights.
  • The primary function is to change solar energy into electricity.
  • The two kinds of the solar panel are: poly-crystalline and Mono-crystalline
  • The rate of conversion of the mono-crystalline solar panel is far higher as compared to the poly-crystalline.

Rechargeable Battery

  • The objective of Rechargeable Battery is to store the electricity which is there in the solar panel at the daytime and gives the power at the night time.
  • 2 Different kinds of batteries are:
  1. a) Lead Acid Battery
  2. b) Gel Cell Deep Cycle Battery 

Lighting Fixture

  • As a lighting source, the solar street light is used, as they give higher Lumensat the low consumption of power.
  • As compared to HPS fixtures the energy consumption rate is 50% lower in case of the LED fixture


  • In the case of the solar street light, the controller plays an important role
  • It is that part which decides as to when to switch on /off the light.


  • There is always a requirement of strong Poles to fix solar street lights as the components are heavy and are fixed at the top of the pole.
  • Panels and Fixtures.


Every streetlight has its own photovoltaic panel, which is autonomous with the other street lights. Alternately, there are various panels which are installed to act as a mid-power source for the other location and to supply the power to various other street lights.

The solar panel street lights are becoming very popular because of their compact design, which let all the parts fit compactly along with the battery. The city of Las Vegas, Nevada, is known as the first city which tested the new EnGoPlanet Solar Street lights accompanied with the kinetic tiles. Besides, it creates power when people pass from them.


  • The cost of operation is not high.
  • This source of electricity is pollution-free.
  • There are NO external wires. Thus, making the accident chances less.
  • The different categories of this system make it easy to carry. Thus, it is accessible remotely.
  • The maintenance is less.


  • The starting cost of the setup is more.
  • High Risk of theft.
  • You have to change many times the Rechargeable batteries.
  • When the weather is cloudy or rainy days, it doesn’t work.
  • The working being affected by snow and moisture.

In Final Words:

Thus, they are best for lightning at nights. The functionality is effortless and can be easily installed. Life is more and is widely being used. These days’ people want products which are durable and are of good quality at the same time.

Author Bio:

Isabel Speckman is a North Carolina-based freelance writer and work-from-home mother of two. In her 10 years as a professional writer, she’s worked in proposal management, grant writing, and content creation. Personally, she’s passionate about teaching her family how to stay safe, secure and action-ready in the event of a disaster or emergency.