Moscow military chiefs said data from the RS-12M Topol launch would be used to develop systems for countering “enemy” missile defences.
But the ballistic missile tested last night is just the tip of the Russian military iceberg, which has seen massive investment and undergone a rapid modernisation programme under Vladimir Putin.
The fearsome Russian armed forces consist of more than one million active soldiers, the world’s second largest airforce and more tanks than any other military.
This is in addition to the widest inventory of ballistic and cruise missiles in the world.
Russia ranks third in the world in terms of military spending, ploughing a massive $69billion in to defence annually.
The sum puts the country behind only China and the United States.
By comparison, the UK spends £35billion (approximately $47billion) on defence.
The RS-12M Topol itself is a mobile ICBM which Russia claims is capable of countering missile defence systems currently deployed in Europe and South Korea.
The missile is tipped with a 800 kiloton nuclear weapon, which can be launched more than 6,000 miles.
By comparison, the nuclear bomb which wiped out Hiroshima in the final days of World War Two had a yield of 15 kilotons.
US military officials estimate around 100 RS-12M Topol launchers are currently deployed.
Russia’s nuclear arsenal is made up of an estimated 7,000 warheads.
And in 2007, military chiefs test fired the new RS-24 Yars ICBM.
It has a similar range to the RS-12M Topol and can strike anywhere in the United States, but instead of carrying one nuclear warhead, it carries multiple, smaller ones.
Russian media has claimed the RS-24 Yars is tipped with 10 warheads, but NATO officials dispute this.
This year the Russian navy unveiled its previously top-secret Yasen-class attack submarine.
Russian media has claimed the nuclear-powered vessel is capable of hitting America’s east coast from the middle of the Atlantic ocean with its arsenal of hundreds of cruise missiles.
The sub was specially designed to destroy enemy submarines, surface ships, naval bases and ports.
It is believed Yasen-class will enter full service in 2018, with six more subs scheduled to be built by 2023.
Russia’s ground forces are supported by more than 2,500 battle tanks, including the fearsome T-14 Armata.
Russia claims its high-tech fighting machine was developed with added protection against NATO anti-tank weaponry.
The tank features a remote control turret which is operated by crew members from inside the highly armoured main body.